SEBA Board Class 10 Social Science Chapter 2 Question & Answer:
Rise Of Gandhi & Freedom Movement of India /Chapter 2
Very short answer questions:
Q1. When was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar (Gujarat).
Q2. In which country did Gandhi first apply the technique of Satyagraha?
Ans: South Africa.
Q3. Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his knighthood?
Ans: Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood as a mark of protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
04. Under whose leadership was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Ans: All brothers – Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.
Very short answer questions:
05. When did the Chaur Chaura incident take place?
Ans: On 5th February 1922.
06. Under what circumstances did Lala Lajput Rai lose his life?
Ans: Lala Lajput Rai lost his life as a result of the injury he received the lathi charge for protested against the arrival of Simon Commun India in 1927.
Q7. When and in which session of the Indian National Congress was Purna Swaraj declared to be the chief goal of the Indians?
Ans: In the Congress session held at Lahore in 1929. Purna Swaraj was declared to be the chief goal of the Indians.
08. Gandhi started on his Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram to the seacoast at Dandi.
What was the distance between Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi?
Ans: 385 kms.
Very short answer questions;
who was known as Frontier Gandhi?
Ans: Khan Acoul Gaftaar Khan.
Q10. Who was the sole Congress representative at the second Round Table
Conference in London?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi.
Q11. Name the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award 2
Ans: Ramsay Macdonald.
Q12. During the course of which movement did, Gandhi gave the slogan “Do or Die?
Ans: Quit India Movement of 1942.
Q13. Who was the founder of the Azad Hind Fauz?
Ans: Rash Behari Bose.
014. “Give me blood and I shall give you freedom”. This famous quote is attributed to
which Indian leader?
Ans: Subhash Chandra Bose.
015. What is the name of the International Boundary Line between India and Pakistan?
Ans. Radcliffe line.
Short/Long answer type questions:
01. What do you understand by the Satyagrah? Briefly write about the three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India?
Ans: The word Satyagraha was first used by Gandhi in South Africa. He used
this concept as a chief weapon of resistance against the discrimination of the South Africa regime. It is a compound of two separate words ‘Satya’ (truth) and ‘Agraha’ (holding fast) which means holding on to the truth. Non-violence and truth formed the basis of Satyagraha. It means that weak and unarmed people will fight for their cause without involving in violence.
In India Gandhi used his principle in solving the three local disputes:-
1. In 1917. in Champaran (North Bihar) Mahatma Gandhi took up the cause of
peasants against the landlord.
2. In 1918. in Kheda (Gujarat) Mahatma Gandhi took up the cause of the farmers
against the collection of land revenue when their crop had failed.
3. In Ahmedabad, Mahatma Gandhi took up the cause of the mill workers
against the mill owner.
Short/Long answer type questions:
Q2. Why was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Ans: After the first World War, with the defeat of Turkey, the powers of the Khalifa were greatly cut down. When the Muslims realized that the Sultan of Turkey, who they considered to be their Khalifa(Caliph) or spiritual head, would no longer have any control over the holy places of Turkey, they were very upset. Hence with the objective to restore the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph of Islam, the Muslims in India started the Khilafat Movement under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammed Ali. Gandhi also extended support to the movement as the golden opportunity for bringing Hindu and Muslims together.
Short/Long answer type questions:
Q. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22? What were its programmes? What made Gandhi to suspend the movement?
Ans: The factors that led Mahatma Gandhi to launch the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22 are:-
1. India’s support of Britain during the First World War had negatively affected
Indian economy and India lost hundreds of Indian men in the war, without
2. The Indians feel very oppressed by the Rowlatt Act of 1919 by which any
person suspected of terrorist activities could be imprisoned for 2 years
without any trial
3. Indian Muslims had started the Khilafat movement advocating restoration of
power to the Sultan of Turkey and Gandhi gave support to this movement.
4. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 shocked the people of India,
depending on their determination to throw out the British
5. The economic exploitation of India by the British.
Some of the programmes were:
1. Foreign clothes were burned in bonfires in many places of the courtry
2. Shop selling foreign goods and liquor were picketed.
3. Hundred of students left government school and colleges.
4. Forty lakh volunteers were enrolled by Congress.
5. Twenty thousand ‘Charkhas’ were manufactured and distributed.
6. Titles and honors given by the British were surrendered.
In spite of the wishes and instructions of Gandhi, people at certain places did not remain peaceful. On 5th February 1922, there was violence at Chauri Charu in Gorakpur district. The Local police attacked the protester and as a result, protesters were killed in police firing. So, in anger, the protester burned down the police station killing twenty-twO police. Gandhijp was shocked at this incident and accepting that there was a lack of discpline and restrain among. So, he suspend the movement.
Short / Long answer type questions:
Q4. What were the main aims of the Civil Disobedience movement? What were the main features of this movement?
Ans: The main aim of the Civil Disobedience movement of 1930 was to attain ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or Complete Independence. On 31st January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi warned Viceory Lord Irwin to remove the effects of British rule in India and gave him a list of demands. They were:
1. To prohibit the use of intoxicants.
2. To change the ratio of rupee and sterling.
3. To decrease the rate of land revenue and military expenditure.
4. To decrease Civil administration expenditure.
5. To remove salt tax and Crime Investigation Department.
6. To impose a custom duty on foreign clothes.
7. To accept Postal Reservation Bill
8. To set free all political prisoners.
9. To issue license of arms to citizen for self-protection
The mains feature of this movement was that it gave due emphasis to breaking the salt laws of the country. The movement was formally started by Gandhiji from the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad with the famous Salt Satyagraha of Gandhi also known as Dandi March. Gandhi started the Dandi March on 12th March 1930 with his 78 followers and Gandhi travel for 25 days and covering a distance of 385km they reached Dandi on 6th April 1930. Gandhi protested against the salt Law by making salt himself and throwing up a challenge to the British government. The movement spread and salt laws were challenged in other parts of the country. In the Northwest Frontier province, the Movement was led by “Khudai Khitmadgars’ (servant of Gods) popularly known as Red Shirts under the leadership of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (also known as Frontier Gandhi). Gandhi and thousands of freedom lovers were arrested during this period.
Short/Long answer type questions
05. Under what circumstances was the Quit India Movement launched? Do you consider the movement to be a milestone in India’s struggle for Independence? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans: In 1942, Churchill sent one of his ministers, Sir Stafford Cripps to negotiate with the Indian political parties seeking their support in the war that the British were waging in Europe. A draft declaration of the British Govt. was offered which included the establishment of a dominion, constituent assembly and the rights of provinces to make separate constitutions. All this would be granted only after the war. But, the Cripps mission failed to arrive at a compromise with the Indian political issue. The Indian National Congress adopted ‘Quit India’ Resolution on 9th August 1942 in Bombay and Gandhi launched the major movement of India. Quit India.
Quit India movement is marked as a milestone in the freedom struggle of India. The reasons are given below:
In 1930, the Civil Disobedience movement was started on 12th March 1930. Gandhi with his 78 followers left Sabarmati Ashram and made their way towards Dandi and broke the Salt Law, Indians, Indians were prepared to face any situation at the courage of Gandhi.
(1) The message of ‘Purna Swaraj’ created a deep sensation throughout the country. Thousands of people joined the movement. In many places, the movement failed to control the administration. Strike, picketing, meeting. procession etc. were the activity of the agitators. People stuck to their movement in spite of the oppression of the British. This shows the strong determination of the Indians towards freedom.
(m) in North-West, Frontier Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan who was also known as
Frontier Gandhi included various programmes in the movement like stripping to pay taxes and land revenue. The existence of the gon was made almost nil for several months. The British prime minister, Ramsay Macdonald presided over a Round Table conference in which no Indian took part and showed the courage of the Indians.
Q6. Write a brief note on the Indian National Army.
Ans: Sushan Singh was previously a captain of the British Indian armed forces In December 1941, the Japanese attacked Malay, the British dependency and defeated the British forces there. Sushan Singh fleeing from the battlefield along with a small group of soldiers later surrendered to the Japanese forces. Thereafter, Sushan Singh organized an anti-British armed force taking all the war prisoners of the British Indian forces. The name of this force was the Indian National Army because its aim was to liberate India from the British with the help of the Japanese. Even if the Indian National Army was organized under Japanese help its purpose was to liberate India from the British. The soldiers of the Indian National Army neither worked as the mercenary of Japan for the realization of her political ambition The soldiers of the Indian National Army marched towards India and by the month of March 1944 by crossing the boundary.
they entered into about 150 kilometers of the country. Thus, fighting in the struggle for freedom of the Indian National Army sacrificed their lives. However, the Indian National Army contributed much towards the advancement of the freedom struggle of the country, Internally the Quit India movement and externally the Indian national Army reduced the power and strength of the imperialist by attacking at the core of the British armed forces in India.